When jitney competition became severe, about 1915, the first move of the street rail- way companies was to seek protective legislation. They have discovered since then, however, that the solution of their problems is not to be found in tighter monopolistic control but in effective marketing of their services. Instead of fighting against the use of jitneys and of the buses which have superseded them, many street railway companies themselves are now operating buses, as a means of serving territories which formerly they did not reach.

The street railway companies also have learned that by providing comfortable seats, air-tight, easily-operated windows, attractive illumination for car interiors, accessible signal systems, clear destination signs, and smooth roadbeds, and by otherwise modernizing their equipment, they can at- tract patronage, stimulate friendly public relations, and lower operating costs. This reflects a striking change in the point of view of the officials of those companies. Had the change occurred at an earlier date the companies as well as their patrons would have been the gainers.

The change in attitude, furthermore, has opened new marketing possibilities to the manufacturers of street railway equipment. Several steam railway companies, likewise, have forsaken decadent methods and have increased their business by improving their services and by featuring the operation of their trains and their scenic advantages. Electric power and light companies also have learned to depend on effective marketing rather than monopolistic control.

They have, for instance, built up their loads by the sale of electric appliances and by cooperation with motor manufacturers in selling industrial electrification. The experience of the public utilities points a lesson to manufacturers in many fields, where ineffective marketing has not even the excuse of monopolisticcontrol. This lesson is the need of conquering vicissitudes by constructive marketing methods instead of at- tempting to avert their effects by using negative defensive measures.

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